Ngaba iNtsholongwane yaseWest Nile iyingozi?

ingcongconi enentsholongwane yasentshona yeNile

Kwimeko apho besinengxaki encinci ngobhubhani we-coronavirus, abantu abaliqela eSeville baye bavavanywa ukuba banayo intsholongwane i-West Nile virus (WNV). Unobangela uya kuba kukulunywa yingcongconi osulelwe yintsholongwane kwaye, nangona kungekho nto ingako eyaziwayo malunga nosulelo lwayo, sifuna ukuhlalutya iimpawu kunye nobukhulu obunokubangela kubemi.

Ukulunywa yingcongconi kunokuba yingozi ngakumbi ukuba wosulelwe yintsholongwane ye-West Nile. Iingcongconi zisasaza le ntsholongwane ngokuluma intaka enesifo zize zilume umntu. Noko ke, asinguye wonk’ ubani olunywa ziingcongconi ezinentsholongwane ofumana esi sifo.

Bosulelwa njani abantu?

Isifo se-WNV saqalwa kwaqatshelwa ngowasetyhini osuka kwisithili saseWest Nile eUganda eMpuma Afrika ngo-1939. i-flavivirus, kusapho olunye njengedengue (isifo esixhaphakileyo kumazwe ashushu) kunye ne-zika (ekwakukho intetho eninzi kwiminyaka emi-4 eyadlulayo, ngenxa yokuqhambuka kweLatin America) kwaye enxulumene ne-hepatitis C.

Abona bantu bathwala le ntsholongwane ziintaka, yaye ukufuduka kwazo kwenza kube nokwenzeka ukuba isasazeke ukusuka komnye ummandla ukuya komnye. Izilwanyana zasekhaya zinokufumana usulelo, kuba lihashe apho iimeko zeempawu zenzeke ngakumbi.

I-WNV idluliselwa ebantwini xa a Ingcongconi iCulex, iAedes okanye iMansonia (hayi naluphi na uhlobo) iluma isilwanyana esosulelekileyo emva koko ibe ngumntu. Iingcongconi zithwala ezona zixa zikhulu zentsholongwane ye-West Nile phakathi Agasti no-Oktobha, ngoko ngeli xesha iimeko ngenxa yokugula zixhaphake kakhulu.

Umngcipheko wokuwufumana uyancipha njengoko imozulu isiya ibanda kwaye iingcongconi ziqala ukufa. Kule minyaka ilishumi idlulileyo kuye kwakho iimeko ezimbalwa zesifo seWNV eAndalusia, nangona kwinyanga ephelileyo abantu abangaphezu kwe-18 baye baxela iimeko ze-WNV. meningoencephalitis.

Ngaba iyosulela kakhulu?

Ngaphandle kwe-alam enokwenzeka ngenxa yokulunywa yingcongconi, I-80% yosulelo lwabantu alubonakali kwaye engaqatshelwanga. Banokufunyaniswa kuphela kubukho be-antibodies kuvavanyo lwegazi. Ukuba kukho iimpawu, yifiva, intloko ebuhlungu, ukuqaqamba kwezihlunu, kwaye ngamanye amaxesha amabala amancinci eluswini athi saa emzimbeni.
Iingcali zithi kwi I-0% yamatyala kukho isifo se-neuroinvasive, kunye ne-meningoencephalitis (ukuphelelwa amandla, ukuphazamiseka kokuziphatha, ukuxhuma kwemisipha, ukuxhuzula) kunye / okanye ukukhubazeka kwe-flaccid kwamalungu ngenxa yokulimala komgogodla.

Ngamanye amazwi, ukuba iimeko ezili-18 ze-meningoencephalitis eziye zaxelwa kwiSebe lezeMpilo le-Junta de Andalucía zibangelwa yintsholongwane ye-West Nile, ubuncinane abantu abangamakhulu / amawaka abantu baye bosulelwa ngaphandle kolwazi.

Ngokusengqiqweni, abona bantu basemngciphekweni wokosuleleka sesi sifo ngabo bahlala kwiindawo eziqhambuko kunye nalapho kukho iingcongconi ezisasaza, njengakwindawo ehlala iingcongconi. Sevillana Marsh. Ukongezelela, amaqela asemngciphekweni (abadala abadala kunye nabantu abakhubazekileyo) ngabona bachaphazelekayo.

Iimpawu

Ukuba sinentsholongwane ye-West Nile, siya kubonisa iimpawu zokuqala zentsholongwane phakathi kweentsuku ezintathu ukuya kwezili-14 emva kokulunywa. Iimpawu zentsholongwane ye-West Nile ziyahluka ngokobunzima. Iimpawu ezimandundu zinokubandakanya:

  • Umkhuhlane
  • Ukudideka
  • Ukuhlaselwa
  • Ubuthathaka bemisipha
  • Ukungaboni kakuhle
  • Amandla
  • Ukukhubazeka komzimba
  • Coma

Usulelo olubi lunokuhlala iiveki ezininzi. Kwiimeko ezinqabileyo, usulelo olunzima lunokubangela umonakalo osisigxina wobuchopho. Usulelo olungephi aludli ngokuhlala ixesha elide kangako. Iintlobo ezingephi zentsholongwane ye-West Nile zinokubhidaniswa nomkhuhlane. Iimpawu zisenokuba ngumkhuhlane, intloko ebuhlungu, umzimba obuhlungu, isicaphucaphu, ukuhlanza, nokudumba kwamadlala elymph, irhashalala esifubeni, esiswini, okanye emqolo.

Ingcongconi yentsholongwane ye-West Nile

Imiba yengozi

Nabani na olunywe yingcongconi eyosulelekileyo unokosulelwa yintsholongwane iWest Nile. Nangona kunjalo, ngaphantsi kwepesenti enye yabantu abalunyiweyo baba neempawu ezinzima okanye ezibeka ubomi esichengeni. Ubudala yenye yezona zinto zibalulekileyo zomngcipheko wokuphuhlisa iimpawu ezinzima zosulelo lwe-West Nile. Okukhona sikhula (ingakumbi ukuba singaphezulu kwama-60), kokukhona sifumana amathuba okuba sijongane neempawu eziqatha.

Iimeko zonyango ezonyusa umngcipheko weempawu ezinzima ziquka iimeko zezintso, isifo seswekile, uxinzelelo lwegazi oluphezulu, umhlaza, okanye ukukhubazeka kwamajoni omzimba.

Kufunyaniswa njani?

Ukuxilongwa kunokwenziwa ngu serology (uvavanyo lwegazi), kodwa lunokunika iziphumo ezingezizo njengakuyo nayiphi na intsholongwane. Ngoko ke, kufuneka kwenziwe kwakhona igazi PCR, ebonakala kakuhle kwisigaba somkhuhlane, nakwi-cerebrospinal fluidnangona kunokubakho izinto ezingalunganga.

Ukuba iimpawu zinzima kwaye zihambelana nengqondo, ugqirha unokuyalela i-lumbar puncture. Olu vavanyo, olukwabizwa ngokuba kukuhlatywa kwe-lumbar, kubandakanya ukufaka inaliti emqolo ukususa ulwelo. Intsholongwane ye-West Nile inokunyusa inani leeseli ezimhlophe zegazi kulwelo, nto leyo ebonisa usulelo. I-MRI kunye nezinye i-imaging scans nazo zinokunceda ekuboneni ukudumba kunye nokudumba kwengqondo.

Unyango

Ngelishwa, okwangoku akukho nyango lukhethekileyo okanye isitofu sokugonya sesi sifo. Ngoko kukho unyango lwenkxaso kuphela de isifo sipheliswe ngokwaso. Kodwa sinokuthatha izithomalalisi zeentlungu ezingaphaya kwe-counter, ezinje nge-ibuprofen okanye i-aspirin, ukukhulula iimpawu zentsholongwane ye-West Nile, ezinje ngeentlungu zemisipha kunye neentloko.

Ukuba siyadumba ebuchotsheni okanye ezinye iimpawu ezinzima, ugqirha unokusifaka ulwelo olufakwa emithanjeni kunye namayeza okunciphisa umngcipheko wosulelo.

Uphando luyaqhubeka ngoku kunyango lwe-interferon kwintsholongwane ye-West Nile. Unyango lwe-Interferon lwenzelwe ukusebenzisa izinto ezenziwe sisistim somzimba wakho ukunyanga i-encephalitis kubantu abosulelwe yintsholongwane ye-West Nile. Uphando aluqinisekanga malunga nokusetyenziswa kwezi zonyango kwi-encephalitis, kodwa izifundo ziyathembisa.

Olunye unyango olunokuthi luphandwe kwi-encephalitis enxulumene ne-West Nile lubandakanya i-intravenous polyclonal immunoglobulin, i-recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody, i-corticosteroids. Ugqirha usenokuthetha nathi ngonyango olunye okanye ngaphezulu kwezi zonyango ukuba sineencephalitis kwaye iimpawu zibukhali okanye zisongela ubomi.

Thintelo

Konke ukulunywa yingcongconi kwandisa umngcipheko wokosuleleka. Amaqhinga ambalwa anokukunceda uthintele intsholongwane yaseWest Nile ngalo lonke ixesha ungaphandle:

  • Gcina ulusu lugqunywe ngeehempe ezinemikhono emide, ibhulukhwe kunye neekawusi.
  • Sebenzisa into yokugxotha izinambuzane.
  • Ukuphelisa nawaphi na amanzi amileyo ajikeleze ikhaya lakho (iingcongconi zitsalwa ngamanzi amileyo).
  • Qinisekisa ukuba iifestile neengcango zendlu zinenethi zokuthintela iingcongconi ukuba zingangeni.
  • Sebenzisa iminatha yokuthintela iingcongconi, ingakumbi ezingqonge iipaki okanye izithwala-ndwe, ukuze sizikhusele.

Ukulunywa yingcongconi kuxhaphake kakhulu ukusukela oko ekupheleni kuka-Agasti kude kube sekuqaleni kukaSeptemba. Umngcipheko wakho uyancitshiswa ngeenyanga ezibandayo kuba iingcongconi azikwazi ukuphila kumaqondo obushushu abandayo.

Ngokuqinisekileyo, nayiphi na indlela yokukhusela i-anti-mosquito iya kuba luncedo kakhulu ukuphepha ukulunywa. Ezi ziquka: iinethi zokuthintela iingcongconi, izinto zokugxotha iingcongconi, iimpahla ezinde (ingakumbi ngorhatya nasekuseni) kwiindawo eziqhambukayo, kunye nokuphepha iindawo ezinamanzi angaxokozeliyo (amachibi, iinkonkxa, izitya eziphothiweyo, njl. njl.).


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