I-Asbestos, ingozi enkulu yempilo

I-asbestos iyingozi kakhulu empilweni, ngakumbi kubantu abanesifo sombefu. Ngokuqhelekileyo kuqhelekile kwizakhiwo ezindala, kodwa kulo lonke eli nqaku siza kungena ngokupheleleyo kwisifundo. Siza kufumanisa ukuba yintoni i-asbestos ngokwayo kunye nalapho ikhoyo, siya kukwazi nezifo ezibangelayo, indlela yokuphepha le mingcipheko kwaye siya kukwazi ukuba isasetyenziswa nanamhlanje xa kwakhiwa izakhiwo okanye hayi.

Kwakungekude kube kutshanje ukuba i-asbestos yafunyanwa iyingozi empilweni, eneneni iindidi eziyingozi kakhulu yi-crocidolite kunye ne-amosite. Ukulunga kwethu kufuneka sazi ukuba kunqabile ukuba ngoku kukho izakhiwo ezizibandakanya kulwakhiwo lwazo, kodwa siya kuthetha ngale nto ngokweenkcukacha ngakumbi ekupheleni kwesicatshulwa.

Kwaye kumaxesha amaninzi siye sava malunga ne-asbestos kwizakhiwo zebinzana ezifana "baza kususa i-asbestos eluphahleni", "baya kutshintsha i-asbestos kwiindonga". Kulo lonke eli nqaku siya kuqonda ukuba yintoni kanye ababhekisela kuyo kwaye siya kubona iifoto ukuze sazi ukuba i-mineral ye-asbestos eluhlaza ibonakala njani.

Ukususela ngoku sicebisa ukuba, ukuba sinalo mathiriyeli ekhaya okanye siye sadibana nayo, kungcono ukwenza uphononongo lwempilo yethu ngamaxesha athile, ukukhangela umhlaza wemiphunga okanye olunye uhlobo lomhlaza.

Yintoni kwaye ibekwe phi?

I-Asbestos yiminerali yendalo eyenziwe yimicu enokuthi ihlulwe ibe yimicu emihle kwaye iyimpahla ehlala ixesha elide. Ukusetyenziswa kwayo kusasazeka njenge zokwambathisa, ekubeni akusiyo i-conductor yombane kwaye iyamelana nobushushu, umlilo kunye nonyango kunye neemveliso zeekhemikhali. Ukwenza izinto zibe mbi ngakumbi, isetyenziselwa ukuqinisa isamente nezinye izinto zokwakha.

Kuyingozi kakhulu empilweni, enyanisweni, ibekwe njenge-carcinogen ixesha elide. Lo mngcipheko uza kuba xa imathiriyeli yokwakha ikhukuliseka sinokusezela le micu mincinane kwaye ibangele ulandelelwano olukhulu lwexesha elide.

Namhlanje i-asbestos inokufumaneka kwizakhiwo ezidala kunye nale nkqubo yokugquma, nakwii-brake linings, i-pipe linings, iibhoyili, kwiinqanawa, njl. Njengomthetho jikelele, izakhiwo ezibuyiselwayo amashumi amaninzi eminyaka zidla ngokususa i-asbestos kunye nokubeka olunye uhlobo lwezinto eziphathekayo.

iasbestos ekrwada

Wikipedia

izifo ezibangelayo

I-asbestos ibangela izifo ezahlukeneyo, kuquka iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zomhlaza. Siza kuthetha ngezantsi izifo eziqhelekileyo ezibangelwa yile minerali yendalo ngethamsanqa sele irhoxisiwe. Ukongezelela, kunzima kakhulu ukubaleka kwimiphumo yayo emibi, kwaye siya kuqonda ukuba kutheni sithetha oku ngezantsi.

Into enomdla malunga ne-asbestos kukuba i-sequelae ihlala ixesha elide kwaye icotha ukuvela, ekubeni umntu oye wadibana nale minerali akaphuhli izifo de kube semva kweminyaka eyi-10, kunye neminyaka engama-20 kwezinye iimeko. Enyanisweni, kukho abo bathatha inxaxheba ekwakhiweni kwezinye izakhiwo kunye neminyaka engama-40 kamva babandezeleka ngenxa yomhlaza wemiphunga.

  • I-asbestosis, eyaziwa ngokuba yi-asbestosis. Sisifo esimandundu sokuphefumla esibangela amanxeba emiphungeni kwaye asinakuguqulwa.
  • I-Mesothelioma luhlobo lomhlaza onganyangekiyo obonakala kudonga lwesisu kumqolo ongaphakathi wesifuba. Iqhelekile kubasebenzi be-asbestos, nangona kuluntu ngokubanzi, luhlobo olunqabileyo kakhulu lomhlaza.
  • Umhlaza wemiphunga.

Indlela yokuphepha iingozi

Kukho iindlela ezininzi zokuthintela umngcipheko, kwaye eyona nto icacileyo yile ungadibanisi nale minerali. Enyanisweni, kwimeko ye-asbestosis, iyaqhubeka nokuphuhlisa nasemva kokuba sisuse umngcipheko ebomini bethu. Kwaye kukuba le minerali inetyhefu kwaye iyingozi kangangokuba ayinciphisi idosi yokuvezwa, siyayilahla imiphumo.

Ukunqanda imingcipheko, sinokuthi kuphela ukuba kungcono ukuba ungazibeki emngciphekweni, kwaye ukuba siye sabhencwa, senze uhlolo lwezonyango ngamaxesha athile ukuze ubambe umhlaza wemiphunga kwangethuba. Iingcali zithi ukubek' esweni kunye nolawulo lwezonyango kuphela kwendlela yokunciphisa umngcipheko wokufa okuthe ngqo ngenxa yokuchaphazeleka kwesi simbiwa.

Enye ingcebiso ayikukuphatha iminerali, kwaye ukuba kufuneka sijongane nayo, yenze ngako konke ukhuseleko lokuphefumula olunokwenzeka. Akukhuthazwa ukuyiphatha ngaphandle kokukhusela, eqinisweni, abantu kuphela abanokususa i-asbestos ngabasebenzi abaqeqeshiweyo abaneesuti zokukhusela.

Ngaba isasetyenziswa nanamhlanje?

Hayi ngethamsanqa. Yaqala ukuyeka ukuyisebenzisa ngeminyaka yoo-70 xa sele kukho ubungqina bobudlelwane bayo kwiimeko ezininzi zomhlaza ngenxa yokuvezwa kwesi simbiwa siyingozi. Okushiyekileyo zizakhiwo ezidala ezingekalungiswa kutshanje kwaye zisenokuba nale mathiriyeli phakathi kwezinto zazo zokwakha.

Umthetho waseYurophu, njengoko sithetha kule mihlathi ilandelayo, yaphelisa ukusetyenziswa kwale minerali kulo lonke elaseYurophu ngaphezu kweminyaka elishumi edlulileyo, kodwa ayiqinisekisi ukuba akukho mngcipheko. Ke ngoko, siphinda sicebise ngolwazi olupheleleyo kwimeko yokuthenga indlu engaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 ubudala okanye ukurenta iflethi okanye isakhiwo esineminyaka engaphezu kwama-30 ubudala. Olu lwazi kufanele ukuba lunikezelwe kuthi, kodwa ukuba kunokwenzeka, sicela ukuba lisisindise iingxaki zokuphefumla kwixesha elizayo elingekude kakhulu.

Umthetho omalunga ne-asbestos uyakwalela ukusetyenziswa kwesi simbiwa kwi-Directive 1999/77/EC ukususela nge-1 kaJanuwari 2005, ngoko ke ukuba sithenga indlu okanye sirenta indlu ngaphambi kwaloo mhla, kungcono siqinisekise ukuba asinayo i-asbestos kwimibhobho okanye njengoko ukugquma.

Ukongezelela, i-Directive 2003 / 18 / EC iyakwalela ukutsalwa kwe-asbestos, kunye nokusetyenziswa kwayo ekwenzeni ezinye iimveliso kunye nokuguqulwa kwesi simbiwa. Kwaye xa yonke into ingacacanga, komnye umthetho we-2009 wePalamente yaseYurophu, ifuna ukulawulwa ngokupheleleyo kwamanyathelo okhuseleko kunye nokuvezwa kwe-asbestos ngabasebenzi.


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