Wazi njani ukuba uneCOPD?

umfazi oneCOPD

Amanye amagama ezonyango asenokulahlekisa. I-COPD ngumzekelo ocacileyo woku. Nangona kubonakala ngathi imeko enye evela kwigama, elimele isifo esingapheliyo se-pulmonary obstructive, ngokwenene imele iqela lezifo zemiphunga.

I-COPD ibandakanya i-emphysema, i-bronchitis engapheliyo, kunye ne-asthma engapheliyo. Ngaphezu kwe-3% yabantu baseSpain baye bafumanisa ukuba banohlobo oluthile lwesifo esingapheliyo se-pulmonary, kodwa kunokubakho abantu abaninzi ngaphandle kokuxilongwa.

Yintoni isifo semiphunga esingapheliyo?

Esi sifo saziwa ngcono ngokufinyezwa kwamagama aso. Ayiyonto ngaphandle kweqela lezifo zemiphunga eziqhubekayo. Ezona zifo zixhaphakileyo yi-emphysema kunye ne-bronchitis engapheliyo, nangona abantu abaninzi abanesi sifo benemeko zombini.

I-Emphysema itshabalalisa kancinci iingxowa zomoya emiphungeni, iphazamisana nokuphuma komoya. Kunoko, i-bronchitis ibangela ukuvuvukala kunye nokunciphisa i-bronchi, ivumela i-mucus ukuba yakhe. Ukuba ishiywe ingaphathwanga, i-COPD inokukhokelela ekuqhubekeni kwesifo ngokukhawuleza, iingxaki zentliziyo, kunye nokwanda kwezifo zokuphefumula.

Abantu abatshayayo ngoku okanye abantu ababekade betshaya basengozini enkulu. Ngaphaya koko, iimeko zinokuthi zenzeke kwabasetyhini, abantu abangama-65 okanye ngaphezulu, abantu abangaphangeliyo, abadla umhlala-phantsi, okanye abangakwaziyo ukusebenza, okanye abo banemfundo engaphantsi kwesikolo esiphakamileyo. Ngokunokwenzeka, ezi meko zokugqibela zibangelwa kukuphila okubi kunye neemeko zempilo.

indoda ekhohlela nge-epoc

Iimpawu eziqhelekileyo zeCOPD

Isifo semiphunga esingapheliyo senza kube nzima ukuphefumla. Iimpawu zinokuba buthathaka ekuqaleni, kunye nokukhohlela okungapheliyo kunye nokuphefumla kancinci. Njengoko isifo siqhubela phambili, iimpawu zisenokungatshintshi, nto leyo eyenza kube nzima ukuphefumla kakuhle.

Kuxhaphakile ukuphefumla nokuxinana kwesifuba okanye uphume isikhohlela ngokugqithisileyo. Abanye abantu abane-COPD baneziqephu ezibukhali, kunye nokugqabhuka kweempawu ezinzima. Ekuqaleni, iimpawu zesi sifo zinokuba buthathaka kakhulu kwaye zinokuthi ziphazame ngokubanda. Phakathi kwezo kukho:

  • Ukuphefumula kancinci, ngakumbi emva kokuzivocavoca
  • Ukhohlokhohlo oluphakathi kodwa oluqhelekileyo
  • Kufuneka ucoce umqala wakho rhoqo, ngakumbi into yokuqala ekuseni
  • Utshintsho olufihlakeleyo lwemihla ngemihla, njengokunqanda izitebhisi okanye ukungazilolongi

Nangona kunjalo, iimpawu zinokuba mbi ngakumbi kwaye kunzima ukuzihoya. Njengoko imiphunga yonakala ngakumbi, unokufumana:

  • Ukuphefumula okufutshane, nasemva kokuzivocavoca kancinci, njengokuhamba ngezinyuko
  • Ukuphefumla, oku luhlobo lokuphefumla okunomsindo ophezulu, ngakumbi ngexesha lokuphefumla
  • Ukuqina kwesifuba
  • Ukukhohlela okungapheliyo, kunye okanye ngaphandle kwe-mucus
  • Kufuneka kucocwe imifinya yonke imihla emiphungeni
  • Imikhuhlane rhoqo, umkhuhlane, okanye ezinye izifo zokuphefumla
  • Ukungabikho kwamandla

Ngokuqhelekileyo, abantu abanesi sifo semiphunga baya kuba ne-flare-ups, edla ngokubangelwa usulelo okanye ukuvezwa kwezinto ezicaphukisayo ezifana nongcoliseko okanye umsi.

Ngelishwa, njengoko i-COPD iqhubela phambili, inokukhokelela ekukhubazekeni okuqhubekayo kwaye ekugqibeleni ukungaphumeleli kokuphefumula, oku kunokukhokelela ekufeni. Ubomi obulindelekileyo kunye neCOPD buxhomekeke kubunzima bemeko kunye nokukwazi komntu ukunyamezela.

Iimbangela zesifo esingapheliyo se-pulmonary obstructive

I-COPD ayosuleli. Oyena nobangela wesi sifo ukutshaya. Ngokutsho kweengcali, ukuchanabeka ixesha elide kumsi wecuba ngoyena thunywashe uphambili apha. Kakade ke, oko kuquka ukuzitshaya okanye ukuba sesichengeni sokutshaya. Okukhona utshaya ixesha elide, kokukhona usengozini enkulu.

Ngokuhamba kwexesha, umsi uyonakalisa imiphunga kunye nonobangela emphysema (xa iingxowa zomoya emiphungeni zonakele) kunye isifo esingapheliyo (xa imibhobho ehambisa umoya isiya okanye ibuye emiphungeni idumbile). Ezinye izinto ezinokuba negalelo kukuchanabeka kungcoliseko lomoya, ukuphefumla uthuli nomsi emsebenzini, usulelo lwemiphunga kunye nemfuza.

Ukuya kuthi ga kwi-5 pesenti yabantu abaneCOPD baswele iprotheni ebizwa ngokuba yi-alpha-1-antitrypsin. Oku kusilela kubangela ukuba imiphunga ibe mandundu kwaye kunokuchaphazela nesibindi. Kusenokubakho neminye imiba yemfuza ehambelana nayo.

icuba libangela i-epoc

Ifunyaniswa njani iCOPD?

I-COPD ifunyaniswa ngovavanyo lwezonyango olubandakanya ukuphononongwa kweempawu kunye novavanyo olucacileyo lomzimba. Iimvavanyo zokujonga isifuba kunye nokusebenza kwemiphunga nazo ziya ku-odolwa. Uvavanyo olusoloko lwenziwa ukuxilonga esi sifo lulo Uvavanyo lwemizuzu emithandathu, elinganisa umgama onokuwuhamba ngelo xesha. Nangona uvavanyo lulula kakhulu kwaye luchanekile, lunokuxelela ingcali kakhulu malunga nokuba umzimba wakho unjani phantsi koxinzelelo (imiphunga ngakumbi).

Xa uya kugqirha, qiniseka ukuba ukhankanya zonke iimpawu. Ngoko ke kufuneka uxoxe ukuba ngaba uyatshaya okanye ukhe watshaya ngaphambili, ukhe wachanabeka kwizinto ezicaphukisa imiphunga emsebenzini, ujongene nomsi omninzi wecuba, unembali yosapho lwakho, unesifo sombefu okanye ezinye iimeko zokuphefumla. -ikhawuntara okanye amayeza kagqirha.

Ngexesha lovavanyo lomzimba, ugqirha uya kusebenzisa i-stethoscope ukumamela imiphunga yakho njengoko uphefumla. Emva kwayo yonke le nto, ugqirha unokucela enye yezi mvavanyo:

  • La i-spirometry Luvavanyo olungangeneleli lokuvavanya ukusebenza kwemiphunga. Ngexesha lovavanyo, uya kuphefumla kwaye emva koko uvuthele kwi-tube exhunywe kwi-spirometer.
  • Uvavanyo lwe umfanekiso wokuxilongaezifana neX-reyi yesifuba okanye i-CT scan. Le mifanekiso inokunika umbono ocacileyo wemiphunga, imithambo yegazi nentliziyo.
  • Ubungqina be igesi yegazi. Oku kubandakanya ukuthatha isampuli yegazi kwi-artery ukulinganisa inqanaba le-oksijini yegazi, i-carbon dioxide, kunye namanye amanqanaba abalulekileyo.

Unyango lokuphucula iCOPD

Alukho ngokwenene unyango lweCOPD, kodwa imeko inokulawulwa kwaye inyangwe. Noko ke, olu nyango lulandelayo aludweliswanga ngethemba lokuphepha ukuphononongwa ngonyango. Kubalulekile ukubonana nengcali ukuze ihlole ubunzulu besifo sakho.

Rukuvuselelwa pulmonary

I-Pulmonary Rehab yile nto ivakala ngathi: ukuvuselela ukuqinisa imiphunga. Njengonyango lomzimba, olu nyango lwe-pulmonary yinkqubo yokuzilolonga egxile ekomelezeni imiphunga kunye nezihlunu ezizixhasayo. Unokwenza ukuhamba, i-yoga, ingqondo kunye neeseshoni zokuphefumla.

Ngokuqhelekileyo kwenziwa kwikliniki yezigulane ezingalaliswanga okanye esibhedlele, nangona kunokwenziwa nasekhaya.

Utyando lweCOPD

Ukungena kwigumbi lotyando kugcinelwe iimeko ezimandundu okanye xa olunye unyango lungaphumelelanga, ngoko oku kunokwenzeka ngakumbi xa unohlobo olubi lwe-emphysema. Olunye uhlobo lotyando lubizwa ngokuba ukususwa kwenkunzi yenkomo, Ngexesha lale nkqubo, oogqirha botyando basusa izithuba zomoya ezinkulu ezingaqhelekanga (iiblebs) emiphungeni.

Olunye lutyando ukunciphisa umthamo wemiphunga, esusa izicubu zemiphunga ephezulu ezonakalisiweyo. Utyando lokunciphisa umthamo wemiphunga lunokusebenza ekuphuculeni ukuphefumla, kodwa zimbalwa izigulana ezenza le nkqubo ibalulekileyo kwaye inobungozi. nkqu, i ukufakelwa Umphunga usenokuba yenye indlela. Ukutshintshwa kwe-COPD kunokunyanga ngokufanelekileyo, kodwa kunemingcipheko emininzi.

Unyango

Enye yezona ntlobo zixhaphakileyo zamayeza eCOPD ngamayeza ibronchodilation, ezinceda ekuvuleni iindlela zomoya. Ngokuqhelekileyo zisetyenziswa njenge-inhalers.

Amanye amayeza angabandakanya iintsholongwane, kuba ukunyanga izifo kwangoko kubalulekile ukulawula esi sifo. Iingcali zithi ukosuleleka kwimiphunga okanye kwindlela yokuphefumla kunokubangela ukuphefumla ngakumbi kwaye kwenze imeko ibe mandundu.

unyango lweoksijini

Kubantu abanezinga elibukhali lokugula kunye namanqanaba aphantsi e-oksijini, unyango lwe-oxygen lunokusetyenziswa. Nangona kunjalo, olu nyango kufuneka luqhutywe ngononophelo kubantu abagula kakhulu, ngoko ke kufuneka lusetyenziswe kuphela phantsi kweliso likagqirha.

Ukutshintsha kobomi

Ukutshintsha indlela yokuphila kunokudlala indima ebalulekileyo ekulawuleni izifo zemiphunga. Ezinye zezona zinto zibalulekileyo onokuthi uzenze ukuwulawula kukuyeka ukutshaya nokufunxa, ukuphepha ukuba kufutshane nomsi wecuba, kwaye uhlale kude kungcoliseko lomoya kangangoko.

Kwakhona, ukugcina usesikhathini ngogonyo, olufana nokudutyulwa komkhuhlane wonyaka, kuyacetyiswa ukuba kukuncede uphephe ukugula kunye nokwandisa iimpawu zeCOPD.


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